姜的10种健康益处——神奇的香料(上)
发布日期:2018-08-05 23:15
QQ截图20180805230938

Long-hailed for its medicinal, therapeutic and culinary benefit, ginger is a true wonder spice with many therapeutic properties. Let’s look at a few of its benefits.

姜因其在医药、疗愈、烹饪方面的益处而备受欢迎,它是一种拥有众多疗愈特性的神奇香料。让我们来看看它的几点好处。

 

As the world’s most widely cultivated spice, ginger may also be the world’s most versatile, evidence-based natural health remedy. Numerous studies have been conducted on the medicinal benefits of this wonder spice for over 100 health conditions. It has a long history of use, and as a testimony to its numerous benefits, it remains a component of more than 50% of all traditional herbal remedies.

作为世界上最广泛种植的香料,姜可能也是世界上经证实疗效最广泛的天然保健药品。人们就姜对100多种疾病的医药价值进行了数量众多的研究。姜的应用历史悠久,其中一个证明就是,超过50%的传统草药方剂含有姜的成分。

 

Ancient uses

古代的用途

 

Ginger was cultivated and used as a spice and medicine in India and China, before historical records even begin. The earliest medical texts of both countries extensively discuss the therapeutic uses of the spice, both in fresh and dried form.

在印度和中国,姜的种植以及作为食材和药材的应用甚至早于有史记载。两国最早的医书大量讨论了这种香料的干鲜两种形态的医疗用途。

 

Chinese texts from the fourth century BC describe ginger as a remedy for treating stomach issues, nausea, diarrhea, cholera, toothaches, bleeding and rheumatism. Chinese herbalists also use the herb to treat various respiratory conditions, including coughs and colds. In the fifth century, Chinese sailors were using ginger’s vitamin C properties to treat scurvy on long voyages.

中国公元前四世纪的医书描述了姜作为药物治疗胃病、反胃、腹泻、霍乱、牙痛、出血和风湿病的方法。中医还用这种草药应对各种呼吸状况,包括咳嗽和感冒。公元五世纪,中国水手运用姜富含的维生素C治疗长时间航海导致的坏血病。

 

In India, Ayurvedic texts consider ginger to be one of the most important herbs available, to the extent of describing it as an entire medicine chest in itself. Ayurvedic practitioners prescribe ginger as a powerful digestive aid since it fuels digestive fire, whets the appetite, and clears the body’s micro-circulatory channels. This helps to improve the assimilation and transportation of nutrients to targeted body tissues. Ginger is also used in Ayurveda as a remedy for joint pain, nausea and motion sickness.

在印度,阿育吠陀医书把姜看作是可获得的最重要的草药之一,甚至将它描述为独立而完整的医药宝库。阿育吠陀医师把姜当做助消化的处方,因为它能点燃消化之火,刺激食欲,还能清理身体的微循环通道。姜能促进吸收并促使营养物质向特定的身体组织运输。在阿育吠陀医学中,姜也是用作治疗关节痛、反胃和晕动症的药物。

 

With such staggering benefits, it’s no wonder the spice has been a staple in kitchens and medicine cabinets for over five thousand years. Moreover, it continues to prove to be an effective natural remedy for many modern diseases, described below.

拥有如此多令人赞叹的益处,姜成为厨房和药柜的常客使用五千多年就不足为奇了。此外,它被进一步证明是对许多现代疾病有效的天然药物,说明如下。

 

Top Ten Therapeutic Benefits of Ginger

姜的十大健康益处

 

 

#1 Popular Digestive Aid: Settles stomach issues

#1 常用消化助剂:治疗胃不适

 

Ginger has been used as a digestive aid for thousands of years by ancient cultures. Its carminative properties promote the elimination of intestinal gas to prevent bloating and flatulence, while its intestinal spasmolytic properties relax the gastrointestinal muscles to soothe an upset stomach.

自古以来姜被用作消化助剂已有数千年历史。它祛风排气的功效能促使肠道气体排出,预防胀气;它还有解除肠道痉挛的功效,能放松胃肠道肌肉以舒缓腹痛。

 

Eating slices of ginger sprinkled with salt before meals can increase saliva flow to aid digestion and prevent stomach issues. It is also helpful to drink ginger tea after a large meal to reduce bloating and flatulence. If your stomach problems are more severe, you can also take ginger to help alleviate the various symptoms of food poisoning.

饭前吃几片撒盐的姜片能刺激唾液分泌帮助消化,预防肠胃病。饱餐过后喝姜茶可以帮助预防胃胀和肠胃胀气。如果你有更严重的肠胃病,还可以用姜帮助减轻食物毒性引发的多种症状。

 

Ginger is frequently recommended to treat dyspepsia (chronic indigestion), provide relief from colic in children, and help in the treatment of bacteria-induced diarrhea.

姜常被建议用来治疗消化不良(慢性消化不良),缓解儿童腹部绞痛,帮助治疗细菌引起的腹泻。

 

#2 Therapy for nausea: Reduces motion sickness and more

#2 治疗反胃:减缓晕动症即其他

 

Ginger is very good at subsiding various types of nausea and vomiting, including morning sickness in pregnant women, motion sickness in travellers, and even nausea in chemotherapy patients.

姜对多种原因引起的恶心呕吐都有帮助,包括孕妇晨起不适,旅行晕动症,甚至是化疗引起的反胃。

 

70% of patients who undergo chemotherapy report struggling with nausea, despite being given anti-emetics during treatment. A recent study on adult cancer patients found that supplementing a daily dose of 0.5 to 1 gram of ginger before chemo, significantly reduced the severity of acute nausea in 91% of the participants.

有报告称,化疗期间即使服用止吐药仍有70%的化疗病人被恶心呕吐所折磨。近期研究发现化疗前给予成年癌症患者每日0.5到1g的姜,能大大减轻91%实验参与者急性恶心呕吐的程度。

 

The herb also helps reduce the dizziness and nausea associated with vertigo. Research in this area indicates that the spice’s therapeutic chemicals work in the brain and nervous system to control the effects of queasiness.

该药剂还能帮助减轻头晕引起的晕眩和反胃。该领域的研究指出这种香料的有效化学物质通过作用于大脑和神经系统从而控制了恶心的症状。

 

#3 Powerful anti-inflammatory: Reduces joint pain and relieves arthritis

#3 强力消炎:减轻关节痛及缓解关节炎

 

Ginger contains a very potent anti-inflammatory compound called gingerol, which is the substance responsible for alleviating joint and muscle pain. According to a study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food, ginger affects certain inflammatory processes at a cellular level. It shares pharmacological properties with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, making it an effective treatment for both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases.

姜含有一种非常有效的消炎成分叫做姜辣素,这种物质能缓解关节和肌肉疼痛。据《药食期刊》发表的研究所说,姜在细胞层面上作用于炎症反应。它具有与非甾类消炎药相似的药理特性,能协同有效治疗急慢性炎性疾病。

 

Many other scientific studies support the effectiveness of ginger for its pro-analgesic effect on the joints, particularly in the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis. Many patients suffering from osteoarthritis have also reported reduced pain and improved mobility by consuming ginger on a regular basis.

许多其他科学研究都赞成姜对关节的有效镇痛作用,尤其是早期的类风湿性关节炎。许多骨关节炎患者通过规律服用姜减轻了疼痛,改善了活动性。

 

Research in Hong Kong suggests that massage therapy using an oil of ginger and orange seems to reduce short-term stiffness and pain in patients with knee issues.

香港的一项研究表明使用姜和橙的精油推拿能减轻膝盖病患的短期僵硬和疼痛。

 

Ginger can also reduce inflammation and muscle pain caused by exercise. In a study carried out by the University of Georgia, researchers administered raw and heat-treated ginger to two groups of 34 and 40 volunteers, over 11 consecutive days. The results, published in The Journal of Pain, concluded that daily use of ginger supplements relieved exercise-induced muscle pain by 25%.

姜还能减轻运动引发的炎症和肌肉疼痛。 美国佐治亚大学进行的一项研究,实验员连续11天将生姜和经加热处理的姜分配给由34名和40名志愿者组成的两个对照组。结果发表在《The Journal of Pain》上,结论是每日配以姜可以减轻25%由运动引起的肌肉疼痛。

 

#4 Provides Pain Relief: Soothes migraines and menstrual pain

#4 缓解疼痛:舒缓偏头痛及痛经

 

Research has shown that ginger can provide pain relief from migraine headaches. A study performed in Iran and published in the Phytotherapy Research journal, found that ginger powder is as effective in treating migraine symptoms as sumatriptan - a common medication for the illness.

研究表明姜能缓解偏头痛。一项在伊朗进行并发表在《植物疗法研究期刊》的研究发现姜粉针对偏头痛的症状同琥珀酸舒马曲坦(该病的常用药)的疗效相当。

 

In the clinical trial, 100 migraine sufferers with acute symptoms were randomly selected to receive either sumatriptan or ginger powder. The researchers found that the efficacy of administering both were similar, while the adverse effects of ginger powder were less than sumatriptan – making it a safer remedy for migraines.

临床试验中,100名有急性病发症状的偏头痛患者随机接受琥珀酸舒马曲坦或姜粉治疗。研究人员发现二者疗效相当,而姜粉的有害副作用更小——使得姜粉成为治疗偏头痛的更安全的药物。

 

Ginger works on migraines by blocking prostaglandins, which stimulate muscle contractions, control inflammation in the blood vessels, and impact some hormones. Drinking ginger tea at the onset of a migraine attack stifles prostaglandins to block the unbearable pain, and stop the associated nausea and dizziness.

姜通过拮抗前列腺素以作用于偏头痛,前列腺素能刺激肌肉收缩、控制血管内炎症、影响其他激素。偏头痛开始病发时喝姜茶可以拮抗前列腺素以阻止无法忍受的疼痛,并阻止并发的反胃和眩晕。

 

Ginger can also help women effectively reduce the pain associated with dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation). A research study in Iran divided 70 female students into two groups. One group was administered ginger capsules and the other was given a placebo - each for the first three days of their menstrual cycles. The researchers found that 82.85% of the women taking ginger capsules reported improvements in pain symptoms, compared to 47.05% of those on placebo.

姜还能帮助女性有效减轻痛经(经期疼痛)。伊朗进行了一项实验,将70名女生分为两组。在经期的头三天,一组配给姜胶囊,另一组配给安慰剂。研究人员发现82.85%的服用姜胶囊的女性疼痛症状减轻,而服用安慰剂的只有 47.05% 。

 

Many cultures also pour fresh ginger juice on their skin to treat burns, and topical application of ginger oil has been found to be very effective in treating joint and back pain.

许多文化中人们还会用新鲜姜汁涂抹烧伤部位进行治疗,人们还发现局部使用姜油对治疗关节和背部疼痛十分有效。

 

#5 Anti-tumor properties: Successful in killing cancer cells

#5 抗肿瘤特性:成功杀死癌细胞

 

Modern research has recently been looking to ginger as a potential remedy for various types of cancer, and has come up with some promising results.

现代研究最近将目光放到了姜对多种癌症的潜在疗效上,并获得了一些可喜成果。

 

One study from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center found that ginger not only killed ovarian cancer cells, it also prevented them from building up resistance to chemotherapy - a common issue in ovarian cancer patients.

美国密歇根州综合性癌症中心的一项研究发现姜不仅能杀死卵巢癌细胞,还能阻止它们建立对化疗的抵抗力——一种卵巢癌患者的常见问题。

 

In the study, researchers applied a solution of ginger powder and water to ovarian cancer cells. In each and every test, they found that the cancer cells died when they came into contact with the ginger solution. Each of the cells either committed suicide, which is known as apoptosis, or they attacked one another, which is referred to as autophagy.

在实验中,研究人员用姜粉溶液和水对卵巢癌细胞进行实验。在每一次测试中,他们都发现癌细胞接触姜溶液后就死亡。那些细胞或者自杀,即细胞凋亡;或者一个攻击另一个,即自吞噬。

 

Ginger has also been proven to effectively treat breast cancer, prostate cancer and colon cancer.

姜还被证明能有效治疗乳腺癌、前列腺癌和结肠癌。

 

Research published in the Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology discovered that chemicals from the ginger plant halted the proliferation of breast cancer cells, without affecting normal mammary cells. This property, known as selective cytotoxicity, is highly significant as it does not occur with conventional methods. And while many tumors respond well to chemotherapy treatment, breast cancer cells can be more difficult. They tend to survive and gain resistance to the treatment.

《生物医学和生物技术期刊》发表的研究发现从姜的植株上提取的化学物质能使乳腺癌细胞停止繁殖,并且不会影响到正常乳腺细胞。这种特性,被称作选择性细胞毒性,具有重大意义,常规的疗法从未做到。化疗对于很多肿瘤效果明显,但杀死乳腺癌细胞尤其困难。它们通常能活下来并对化疗产生抵抗力。

 

The use of natural remedies like ginger that are safe and can suppress growth of breast cancer cells is highly desirable. The other advantages of using ginger are that it is easy to administer in capsule form, it has few reported side effects, and it’s a low-cost alternative to conventional drugs.

使用姜这样的天然药物既安全又能阻止乳腺癌细胞生长,实属难得。它的其他优点是容易制成胶囊,极少副作用,是传统药物的低廉替代品。

 

In 2011, a Georgia State University study set out to explore ginger’s effects on prostate cancer, based on the herb’s proven anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Their results, published in The British Journal of Nutrition, found that ginger extract killed cancer cells in the prostate without affecting any of the healthy cells.

2011年 美国佐治亚州大学基于姜的抗癌、消炎和抗氧化的特性,着手探索姜对前列腺癌的作用。他们的结论,刊登在《英国营养学期刊》上,发现姜提取物能在不影响健康细胞的前提下杀死前列腺中的癌细胞。

 

Modern scientific evidence suggests that ginger can also reduce inflammation in the colon to potentially prevent colon cancer. In a University of Michigan study, researchers administered two grams of ginger root supplements or placebo to a group of 30 patients over 28 days. After 28 days, researchers found significant reductions in colon inflammation markers in patients that were assigned ginger root, making it an effective natural prevention method for those at risk of colon cancer.

现代科学研究表明姜还能减轻结肠炎症以预防结肠癌的发生。密歇根大学的一项研究中,研究人员将2克姜或安慰剂发给一组30人的病患,持续28天。28天后,研究人员发现配给姜的病人体内的结肠炎症标记物明显下降,这成为一种针对有结肠癌患病风险人群的有效的天然预防手段。

 

Ginger compounds have also been studied to inhibit other forms of cancer, including rectal cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, melanoma and pancreatic cancer. It’s also interesting to note that beta-elemene – an anti-cancer pharmaceutical – is derived from ginger.

姜复合物被研究用于其他种类的癌症,包括直肠癌、肝癌、肺癌、色素瘤和胰腺癌。有趣的是,β-榄香烯——一种抗癌药——是从姜中提取的。

 

#6 Anti-diabetic compounds: Lowers blood sugar and increases insulin release

#6 抗糖尿病复合物:降低血糖及增加胰岛素分泌量

 

In the case of diabetes, studies have shown ginger to be effective both preventively and therapeutically.

至于糖尿病,研究表明姜在预防和治疗两方面都有效。

 

Research at the University of Sydney in Australia found ginger to be effective in glycemic control for people with type 2 diabetes. The study, published in the Planta Medica journal, showed that ginger extracts can increase uptake of glucose into muscle cells without using insulin, therefore it may assist in the management of high blood sugar levels.

在澳大利亚悉尼大学的研究发现姜能有效控制Ⅱ型糖尿病患者的血糖。《药用植物期刊》发表的文章表明姜提取物能在不使用胰岛素的情况下增加肌肉细胞对葡萄糖的摄取量,因此可能对控制高血糖有帮助。

 

Another clinical trial concluded that diabetic patients, that consumed three grams of dry ginger for 30 days, had a significant reduction in blood glucose, triglyceride, and in total and LDL cholesterol levels.

另一个临床试验得出结论,连续30天服用3g干姜的糖尿病患者的血糖、甘油三酯、总胆固醇和LDL(低密度脂蛋白)水平明显下降。

 

Overall, ginger works on diabetes by increasing insulin release and sensitivity, inhibiting enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, and improving lipid profiles. Ginger also has a very low glycemic index (GI), which means it breaks down slowly to form glucose, and therefore does not trigger a spike in blood sugar levels like high GI foods do.

总的来说,姜通过提高胰岛素分泌量和敏感度,抑制碳水化合物代谢酶,改善血脂水平来作用于糖尿病。姜的血糖指数(GI)低,就是说姜分解成葡萄糖的速度慢,因此不会像高血糖指数的食物那样触发血糖峰值。

 

Several other studies have also established ginger to have a preventive effect against diabetes complications. Ginger can protect a diabetic's liver, kidneys, and central nervous system, and reduce the risk of cataracts – a common side-effect of the disease.

数个其他实验还确信姜对糖尿病并发症有预防作用。姜能保护糖尿病患者的肝脏、肾脏和中枢神经系统,降低患白内障的风险——该病的一种常见并发症。

 

#7 Heals the heart: Treats a variety of cardiovascular conditions

#7 恢复心功能:治疗多种心血管疾病

 

High in potassium, manganese, chromium, magnesium and zinc, and famous for its anti-inflammatory properties, ginger has been used for years to treat heart conditions.

富含钾、锰、铬、镁、锌及为人熟知的消炎特性,姜一直被用来治疗心脏病。

 

In Chinese medicine, ginger’s therapeutic properties were said to strengthen the heart, and ginger oil was often used to prevent and treat heart disease.

中医认为,姜的治疗作用体现在强心,姜油常被用来预防和治疗心脏病。

 

Modern studies indicate that the herb’s compounds go to work by lowering cholesterol, regulating blood pressure, improving blood flow, and preventing blocked arteries and blood clots – all of which help reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes.

现代研究指出姜复合物能降低胆固醇、调节血压、促进血流、预防动脉栓塞和斑块——以上几点都能帮助降低心脏病发作和中风的风险。

 

#8 Relieves respiratory disorders: Effective in treating asthma

#8 缓解呼吸系统疾病:有效治疗哮喘

 

Ginger compounds have shown positive results in treating respiratory disorders, and research indicates it is a promising treatment for patients suffering from asthma. Asthma is a chronic disease that occurs when the muscles in the lungs’ oxygen channels become inflamed and sensitive to different substances that induce spasms.

姜复合物对治疗呼吸系统疾病有良好效果,研究表明它用于治疗哮喘有光明前景。哮喘是一种慢性疾病,在肺供氧通道的肌肉组织发炎或受过敏原刺激痉挛时发生。

 

Recent research published in the American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, demonstrates that ginger works on treating asthma in two ways: first, by inhibiting the enzyme that constricts airway muscles, and second, by activating another enzyme that works to relax the airways.

最近发表在《美国呼吸细胞和分子生物学期刊》的文章显示姜通过两种方式对哮喘发挥作用:一,抑制作用于气道收缩肌的酶的活性;二,增强作用于松弛气道的酶的活性。

 

Part of the reason ginger works is due to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic compounds, which have properties similar to that of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but without the negative side effects. While asthma can be a deadly disease, some of the medications used to treat asthma can also carry troubling side effects. Therefore, finding alternative, safe remedies like ginger, is a promising discovery in the treatment of this disease.

姜能发挥作用的部分原因归功于它的强抗氧化性、消炎和止痛的成分,与非甾类消炎药作用相似,但没有有害副作用。哮喘是一种致命性疾病,一些用于治疗哮喘的药物副作用堪忧。因此,找到像姜这样安全的替代药物是治疗该病的可喜发现。

 

#9 Immunity-booster: Reduces coughs and colds

#9 免疫增强剂:减少咳嗽感冒

 

Ginger is a wonderful immune system booster, making it a well-known treatment for colds and flus. And since it helps calm symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection, it also works on coughs, sore throats and bronchitis.

姜是一种非常好的免疫系统活化物,让它成为熟知的感冒和流感的治疗药物。帮助减轻上呼吸道感染症状,也用于治疗咳嗽、咽喉痛和支气管炎。

 

Ginger clears the micro-circulatory channels of the body, including the pesky sinuses that flare up during colds. Drinking ginger with lemon and honey is a popular cold and flu remedy that has been handed down for many generations, both in the east and the west.

姜能清理身体的微循环通路,包括感冒导致的恼人的鼻窦炎。饮用柠檬蜂蜜配制的姜茶是治疗感冒和流感的常用药方,在东西方传承了一代又一代。

 

Ginger also has thermogenic properties, so it can warm up the body in the cold and, more importantly, can promote healthy sweating. This type of sweating, which helps to detoxify the body and assist in releasing cold symptoms, has also been shown to fight off bacterial and fungal infections.

姜性热,感冒时能暖身,更重要的是,能促进有益的发汗。这种类型的出汗,有助于解毒并缓解感冒症状,对击退细菌和真菌感染也有疗效。

 

Recent research in Germany found a potent germ-fighting agent contained in sweat which they named dermicidin. This is manufactured in the body’s sweat glands, secreted into the sweat, and transported to the skin’s surface, where it works to provide protection against bacteria like E. coli and fungi like Candida albicans.

德国的新近研究发现在汗液中存在一种能有效抑制微生物的物质,命名为dermicidin。该物质在汗腺中合成,分泌到汗液中并送至皮肤表面,能抵御体表的细菌,如埃希氏菌属大肠杆菌和真菌,如白色念珠菌。

 

Best of all, ginger has concentrated active substances that are easily absorbed by the body, so you don't have to use very much to receive its beneficial effects.

最妙的是,姜含有易被人体吸收的高浓缩的活性物质,所以不必食用很多就可以有很好的收效。

 

#10 Potent Antioxidant: Slows down DNA damage

#10  强力抗氧化:减缓DNA损伤

 

Many worldwide studies have found ginger to contain potent antioxidant properties, which help protect lipids from peroxidation (rancidity) and DNA damage.

世界范围的许多研究都发现姜有很强的抗氧化性,能防止脂类过氧化反应(酸败)和DNA损伤。

 

Antioxidants are extremely important as they provide protection against free radicals, which helps reduce the various types of degenerative diseases that come with aging, such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, Alzheimer’s and more.

抗氧化剂如此重要是因为它们能阻止自由基攻击,从而减少年龄增长导致的各种退行性疾病,如癌症、心脏病、糖尿病、关节炎、阿尔茨海默病等等。

 

While all spices are known to be powerful antioxidants, ginger seems to be extra-potent. It contains 25 different antioxidant properties on its own. This makes it effective at fighting a variety of free radicals, and in different areas of the body.

虽然我们知道所有香料都是有效的抗氧化剂,姜似乎格外强大。它含有25种不同种类的抗氧化剂。这使它能有效对抗身体不同部位的不同种类的自由基。

 

Love&Grace,

Sadhguru

爱与恩典

萨古鲁

文章来源:https://isha.sadhguru.org/in/en/blog/article/10-ways-ginger-root-of-well-being
分享到:

登录后即可发表评论,立即登录.